Lemurs of Madagascar —

Madagascar is world-famous for its lemurs—primates that look something like a cat crossed with a squirrel and a dog. These animals are unique to the island and display a range of interesting behaviors from singing like a whale (the indri) to sashaying across the sand like a ballet dancer (the sifaka). Below you will learn more about these fascinating creatures.

Lemur history
Madagascar lacks the dominant form of primate distributed worldwide, those of the suborder Haplorhini (monkeys, chimps, gorillas, and Homo sapiens). Instead, their niche has been filled by an older group of primates, the lemurs. Lemurs belong to the sub-order Strepsirhini together with bushbabies, lorises, and pottos which—like the original lemurs—are nocturnal, insectivorous primates characterized by a small body, a long nose, and large eyes. Lemurs have an interesting evolutionary history and the only reason they still exist today is because of Madagascar's isolation.

Until around 160 million years ago, Madagascar was attached to the African mainland as part of the super continent Gondwanaland (formed of Africa, South America, Australia, Antarctica, India, and Madagascar). As Gondwanaland broke apart, Madgascar moved away from Africa. The first lemur-like primates on the fossil record appeared roughly 60 million years ago in mainland Africa and crossed over to Madagascar shortly thereafter.

The island continued to drift eastward and by the time monkeys appeared on the scene 17-23 million years ago, Madagascar was isolated from their arrival. As highly intelligent and adaptive primates, monkeys quickly drove the lemur lineage elsewhere in the world toward extinction (a few Strepsirhines—including bushbabies, lorises, and pottos—managed to hang on by retaining their nocturnal, solitary, and insectivorous traits).

Madagascar's lemurs—isolated from evolutionary changes of the world—radiated into the large island's many niches without much competition or predation. Today lemurs are found in virtually all of Madagascar's ecosystems and share some of the social and behavioral characteristics of monkeys (i.e., forming social groups, eating fruit and vegetation, and being active during the day).

Upper primates did not reach Madagascar until about they learned to navigate the high seas and arrived on boats roughly 2,000 years ago. Humans quickly went to work on the island's lemurs, reducing the number of species found in Madagascar by at least 15. The largest species suffered the most and today the largest remaining lemur is the Indri which would have been dwarfed by the gorilla-sized species once found on the island. Currently all lemurs are endangered species, due mainly to habitat destruction (deforestation) and hunting.

Lemurs today
Today Madagascar is home to nearly 60 "taxa" of lemurs (species, sub-species, and populations from 33 species across five families and 14 genera) ranging in size from the 25-gram pygmy mouse lemur to the indri. All these species are endemic to Madagascar (two lemur species were introduced to the Comoros) giving the country the second highest number of primate species after Brazil, which has 77 species (only two endemic genera and no endemic families). And new species are still being discovered— primate researchers speculate that 10-20 new species of lemurs may be described over the next generation.

Global importance of Madagascar's lemurs
According to Russell Mittermeier in The Eighth Continent, although Madagascar "is only one of 92 countries with wild primate populations, it is alone responsible for 21 percent (14 of 65) of all primate genera and 36 percent (five of 14) of all primate families, making it the single highest priority" for primate conservation. "Madagascar is so important for primates that primatologists divide the world into four major regions: the whole of South and Central America, all of southern and southeast Asia, mainland Africa, and Madagascar, which ranks as a full-fledged region all by itself."

Non-scientists generally group lemurs by their primary time of activity: day or night. Noctural lemurs are typically smaller and more reclusive than their diurnal counterparts. Lemurs are vocal animals, making sounds that range from the grunts and swears of brown lemurs and sifaka to the chirps of mouse lemurs to the eerie, wailing call of the indri, which has been likened to a cross between a police siren and the song of a humpback whale.

Lemur species counts for selected parks:
Protected AreaSpecies
Andasibe Mantadia11
Kirindy Mitea8
Montagne d'Ambre8
Pic d'Ivohibe7
Bay de baly6
Nosy Mangabe6

Lemur species:
FamilyCommon nameScientific nameLocal nameActivePictures

CheirogaleidaeMouse and Dwarf lemursNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeHairy-eared Dwarf Mouse-lemurAllocebus trichotis Nocturnal
CheirogaleidaeSouthern Fat-tailed Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus adipicaudatus MataviramboNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeFurry-eared Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus crossleyi MataviramboNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeGreater Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus major MataviramboNocturnal+
CheirogaleidaeWestern Fat-tailed Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus medius Matavirambo, Kely Be-ohy, Tsidy, TsidihyNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeLesser Iron Gray Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus minusculus MataviramboNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeGreater Iron Gray Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus ravus MataviramboNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeSibree's Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus sibreei MataviramboNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeGray Mouse-lemurMicrocebus murinus Tsidy, Koitsiky, Titilivaha, Vakiandri, PondikyNocturnal+
CheirogaleidaePygmy Mouse-lemurMicrocebus myoxinus TsidyNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeGolden Mouse-lemurMicrocebus ravelobensis TsidyNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeRed Mouse-lemurMicrocebus rufus Anakatsidina, Tsidy, Tsitsidy, TistsihyNocturnal+
CheirogaleidaeGiant Mouse-lemur or Coquerel's Mouse-lemurMirza coquereli Tsiba, Tilitilivaha, Siba, Setohy, FitilyNocturnal+
CheirogaleidaeAmber Mountain Fork-crowned LemurPhaner electromontis Tanta, TantaraolanaNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeMasoala Fork-crowned LemurPhaner furcifer Tanta, TantaraolanaNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeWestern Fork-crowned LemurPhaner pallescens Tanta, Tantaraolana, VakivohoNocturnal
CheirogaleidaeSambirano Fork-crowned LemurPhaner parienti Tanta, TantaraolanaNocturnal

DaubentoniidaeAye-aye Nocturnal
DaubentoniidaeAye-ayeDaubentonia madagascariensisAye-aye, Ahay, Itay-hay, AiayNocturnal

IndridaeWoolly lemurs and allies Diurnal
IndridaeEastern AvahiAvahi laniger Avahina, Avahy, Ampongy, FotsifakaNocturnal+
IndridaeWestern AvahiAvahi occidentalis Fotsife, TsarafangitraNocturnal
IndridaeIndri lemurIndri indri indri Babakoto, AmboanalaDiurnal+
IndridaeIndri lemurIndri indri variegatus Babakoto, AmboanalaDiurnal+
IndridaeCoquerel's SifakaPropithecus coquereli Ankomba malandy, Sifaka, TsibahakaDiurnal
IndridaeCrowned SifakaPropithecus deckenii coronatus Tsibahaka, SifakaDiurnal
IndridaeDecken's SifakaPropithecus deckenii dekenii Tsibahaka, SifakaDiurnal+
IndridaeSilky SifakaPropithecus diadema candidus Simpona, SimponyDiurnal
IndridaeDiademed SifakaPropithecus diadema diadema Simpona, SimponyDiurnal+
IndridaeMilne-Edwards's SifakaPropithecus edwardsi Simpona, SimponyDiurnal+
IndridaePerrier's SifakaPropithecus perrieri Radjako, Ankomba JobDiurnal
IndridaeTattersall's SifakaPropithecus tattersalli Ankomba malandy, SimponaDiurnal
IndridaeVerreaux's SifakaPropithecus verreauxi SifakaDiurnal+

LemuridaeTrue lemursDiurnal
LemuridaeWhite-fronted LemurEulemur albifrons VarikaDiurnal
LemuridaeWhite-collared LemurEulemur albocollaris VarikaDiurnal
LemuridaeRed-collared LemurEulemur collaris VarikaDiurnal+
LemuridaeCrowned LemurEulemur coronatus VarikaDiurnal
LemuridaeBrown LemurEulemur fulvus Varikamavo, KombaDiurnal+
LemuridaeBlack LemurEulemur macaco Ankomba, KombaDiurnal+
LemuridaeBlue-eyed Black LemurEulemur macaco flavifronsAnkomba, KombaDiurnal+
LemuridaeMongoose LemurEulemur mongoz KombaDiurnal
LemuridaeRed-bellied LemurEulemur rubriventer VarikamenaDiurnal
LemuridaeRed-fronted LemurEulemur rufus Varika, VarikamavoDiurnal+
LemuridaeSanford's LemurEulemur sanfordi Ankomba, BeharavoakaDiurnal
LemuridaeAlaotran Gentle LemurHapalemur alaotrensis BandroDiurnal
LemuridaeGolden Gentle LemurHapalemur aureus Varibolomena, BokombolomenaDiurnal
LemuridaeGray Gentle LemurHapalemur griseus VaribolomadinikaDiurnal+
LemuridaeSambriano Gentle LemurHapalemur occidentalis Bekola, Kofi, Ankomba valihaDiurnal
LemuridaeRing-tailed LemurLemur catta Maki, HiraDiurnal+
LemuridaeBroad-nosed Gentle LemurProlemur simus Varibolomavo, Vari, VarikandraDiurnal
LemuridaeRed Ruffed LemurVarecia rubra VarimenaDiurnal+
LemuridaeBlack-and-White Ruffed LemurVarecia variegata VarijatsyDiurnal+

MegaladapidaeSportive lemurs Nocturnal
MegaladapidaeBack-striped Sportive LemurLepilemur dorsalis ApongyNocturnal
MegaladapidaeMilne-Edwards's Sportive LemurLepilemur edwardsi Boenga, Boengy, RepahakaNocturnal+
MegaladapidaeWhite-footed Sportive LemurLepilemur leucopus SongikyNocturnal+
MegaladapidaeSmall-toothed Sportive LemurLepilemur microdon Trangalavaka, Kotrika or Kotreka, Fitiliky, Itataka, VarikosyNocturnal
MegaladapidaeMitsinjo Sportive LemurLepilemur mitsinjonensisKotrika, VarikosyNocturnal
MegaladapidaeWeasel LemurLepilemur mustelinus Trangalavaka, Kotrika, Fitiliky, Itataka, VarikosyNocturnal
MegaladapidaeRed-tailed Sportive LemurLepilemur ruficaudatus Boenga, BoengyNocturnal
MegaladapidaeAnkarana Sportive LemurLepilemur septentrionalis ankaranensis Mahiabeala, SongikyNocturnal
MegaladapidaeSeal's Sportive LemurLepilemur sealiSongikyNocturnal
MegaladapidaeNorthern Sportive LemurLepilemur septentrionalis septentrionalis Mahiabeala, SongikyNocturnal

Lemur news

Lemur news feed

Lemur links
Duke University's Lemur taxa - includes extinct lemur species

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Beautifully illustrated with full color photographs throughout, Madagascar Wildlife is a celebration of the unique fauna of a remarkable island and the perfect accompaniment to Bradt's popular general travel guide, Madagascar.

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